ANTI-AGING AND ANTIOXIDATION
Acerola, also known as Barbados Cherries or Wild Crype Myrtles, is a superfruit growing naturally in Central and South America, Africa and Canary Islands. It is an anti-inflammatory ingredient with antioxidant benefits, an all-natural alternative source of Vitamin C, containing 65 times more Vitamin C than an orange. It is also rich in Vitamin A, containing 1017 IU of Carotene for every 100 grams, and has over 150 phyto-nutrients including Vitamin B, beta-carotene and magnesium, as well as multitude of minerals. Acerola is also a source of hydrating polysaccharides and anthocyanins, a parent class of flavanoids, giving it the anti-inflammatory properties (flavanoids serve as a protectant property for the skin’s defense against photo-aging). Fermenting acerola with Lactobacillus enhances the bio-availability for use in cosmetics.
Acerola Cherry Ferment encourages hydrated, supple skin, increases the body’s ability to repair tissues. It improves the skin tone by strengthening blood vessels and improving blood microcirculation. It is the perfect ingredient to nourish the skin, keep it flawless, radiant and naturally bright.
Benefits for skin:
- anti-inflammatory, antioxidant
- deeply hydrating
- increasing skin’s ability to repair tissues
- improving the skin tone
- strengthening blood vessels and improving blood microcirculation
BOSWELLIA SERRATA EXTRACT WITH min. 65% BOSWELLIC ACID
Boswellia Serrata Extract used in our Skin Repair Serum is refined from a tree resin used in Ayurveda, utilizing an eco-friendly supercritical CO2 extraction process. It is a low odor extract that concentrates the two most potent triterpenoids in boswellic extracts: 11-keto-boswellic acid and acetyl-11-keto-boswellic acid. It is COSMOS compliant.
The extract we use was standardized for the presence of boswellic acids and contains at least 65% of them. The boswellic acids have demonstrated powerful anti-GAGase activity. They are also potent inhibitor of elastase and cathepsin D, what makes them a great support to maintaining firm, youthful skin (the claim is supported by the results of a clinical trial in which panelists’ skin was 15% more elastic after 28 days) and improving barrier function. As an anti-inflamatory agent, the purified boswellic acids effectively inhibit 5-lipoxygenase, an enzyme responsible for the production of inflammatory mediators in the Arachidonic Acid Cascade, and prevent the release of pro-inflammatory leukotriene B4 from neutrophils. It makes them perfect for sensitive or chronically inflamed skin.
Carnosine is a peptide, two amino acid (β-Ala-His). Carnosine is naturally present in high concentrations in human brain and muscle tissues, although the ingredient used in skincare is biomimetic (produced in the laboratory). It is multi-functional, anti-aging, with powerful antioxidant properties that stimulate collagen synthesis, and support firmness and skin elasticity.
As demonstrated by dr Leonard Hayflick in 1961, the human fibroblasts have the option of dividing itself 60 to 80 times. On average, fibroblasts of young people divide 30 to 40 times, while those of the older people – only 10 to 20 times. Carnosine extends the average life of fibroblasts in cultures, destroys their transformed shapes and protects against aldehydes. It also prevents the effects of glycation, which is a process of crosslinking of proteins and sugars happening when too much sugar is being delivered to our body, resulting in damaged body proteins, forming non-functioning structures in the body and multiplied wrinkles.
Benefits for skin:
- antioxidant with wound healing activity
- stimulates collagen synthesis
- extends the average life of fibroblasts
- has anti-glycation properties
- effective against the damages caused by infrared (IR) radiation
Coenzyme q10, also known as ubiquinone, is a naturally produced bodily enzyme, found in every cell of the human body. After 20 years of age, due to aging and stress, the ability to produce q10 slows down and our natural supplies diminish. When included in skincare formulations, coenzyme q10 can energize cell activity which is necessary to repair damage as well as remove toxins and make better use of nutrients.
Acting as a potent antioxidant, q10 helps to protect the skin at the molecular level from oxidative stress (precisely: free radicals) and damaging effects of the sun. It also plays a huge role in evening out the skin tone, as it blocks tyrosinase, which helps with the production of melanin. Due to its ability to stimulate collagen and elastin production, coenzyme q10 can influence the diminish of wrinkles depth.
Benefits for skin:
- one of the fundamental antioxidants
- vital in energy production in cells
- evens skin tone
- reduces sun damage
- replenishes skin cells
- improves skin hydration
- protects from oxidative stress
- diminish wrinkles
FRANKINCENSE / BOSWELLIA CARTERI HYDROSOL
Frankincense hydrosol used in LAST cosmetics is 100% pure and natural and it comes from the resin of Boswellia Carteri trees, wild harvested in Somalia. Frankincense is a powerful tree resin that has been used by humankind for nearly 5,000 years. In ancient times, it was more precious than gold.
The frankincense hydrosol is received during the steam distillation of tree’s resin, next to the essential oil. In LAST, we use it instead of water – present in most of the regular skincare products – to make every ingredient count and add the maximum value to all our formulations. It is purifying and energizing. It has restorative influence on skin and can act as a toner with added antioxidant properties because of the small amount of volatile components of essential oil.
Frankincense hydrosol has a characteristic smell, resinous and sweet with woody undertones. It can be used in skin care recipes, meditation, fragrance blends, energy work and other aromatherapy preparations.
Phytic acid (phytate) is a natural ingredient found in plant seeds. All edible grains, legumes, nuts and seeds contain it in varying quantities, and small amounts are also found in roots and tubers. It is the gentlest AHA (alpha hydroxy acid), meaning is supports mild exfoliation of dead cells, but what differentiates it from other AHAs is its antioxidant properties. Phytic acid supports neutralization of free radical damage in the skin, it moisturizes skin and accelerates the natural skin cell rejuvenation cycle. It also has chelating properties – it holds the ability to absorb (or chelate) certain minerals, for example iron molecules in the skin, which are responsible for causing damage to DNA.
Although being an acid, it is very mild and non-irritaing even to sensitive skin. It improves skin texture, helps to treat pigmentation problems, acne and enlargement of pores.
Benefits for skin:
- gently exfoliating dead cells
- accelerating skin cell rejuvenation cycle
- increasing chelating properties of the skin
- improving skin texture
- decreasing pigmentation spots, acne, enlarged pores
ROSEMARY LEAF EXTRACT
Rosmarinus Officinalis leaf extract comes from the popular herb, also used in foods. The extract we use in LAST skincare is manufactured in Italy. Fresh Rosemary leaf is put through a supercritical CO2 extraction process and then infused into sunflower oil for increased solubility. Rosemary contains lots of chemicals, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, and diterpenes. The most valuable components of rosemary leaf extract are rosmarinic acid and carnosic acid, both with potent anitoxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, having a calming effect on skin, useful for mitigating several common skin issues. They also have anti-bacterial, astringent and toning properties.
ROSEMARY LEAF WATER
Rosmarinus Officinalis (Rosemary) leaf water is a hydrosol extracted through the steam distillation of rosemary leaves cultivated in France. It is rich in multiple therapeutic properties, mostly purifying, detoxifying, regulating and stimulating. At LAST, we use it as an upgraded replacement to water and a carrier for all the water-soluble active ingredients. The Rosemary leaf water we chose for LAST formulations is 100% pure, certified, organic and free from preservatives. It is distilled in France, with the Ecocert certificate. It has a characteristic smell.
Used and valued since ancient Egyptian times, rosemary belongs to the Labiatae family, which contains several genera—such as Salvia, Lavandula, and Thymus—that are commonly used in cosmetics, due to their high prevalence of antioxidant molecules. The fathers of ancient medicine—namely, Hippocrates, Avicenna, and Galen—used ointments of rosemary flowers and leaves macerated in olive oil to treat joint pain and as a vulnerary to heal wounds (1). In the form of hydrosol, it has minor antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti fungal properties. With it’s energising properties, it is ideal for combination, dull skin.
Benefits for skin:
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Soapnut extract is sourced from the fruits (nuts) of Sapindus Trifoliatus, also known as Arishta or Phenila in Sanskrit – a deciduous tree growing in southern India. The tree grows up to 15m height and has the crown around 1.50m in width. The leaves are between 12 and 30 cm long. It blooms with white flowers in March and April, then, in September and October the fruits (soapnuts) are harvested, stored and allowed to dry. Soapnuts’ colour turns from golden to reddish brown during this process. The pericarp is a rich source of saponins which function as a mild cleanser, surfactant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agent. They were used for washing for thousands of years by natives in Asia.
Soapnut extract is gentle even for sensitive skin. Dermal toxicity studies on the saponin fraction indicated it doesn’t cause any dermal irritation, sensitization, phototoxicity or photosensitization effects.
Benefits for skin:
- skin conditioning
TEA SEED EXTRACT
Tea seed extract is derived from Camellia Sinensis – Pu’er tea, growing in southwestern Yunnan. It is the evergreen shrub or small tree which leaves and leaf buds are used to produce tea. The tea tree needs 4 years to grow and 7 years to bear fruit. The ones we use for the production of tea seed extract were planted in 1940s. Saponins are the key active ingredient of the extract. They are 100% natural and organic, function as solubilizers with high foam performance and emulsifying properties. Antifungal and antiseborrhoic, they have a clinically proven strong inhibitory effect on Candida albicans, which indicated it is also suitable for feminine care products. They can also effectively inhibit Aspergillus niger, preventing mildew and retain product value. As a natural deoxidizer, tea saponins can not only eliminate exogenous oxygen free radicals, but also prevent the production of endogenous oxygen free radicals. They also have inhibitory effect on leukotriene D4 – one of the slow reaction substances of allergies, an important regulatory factor in many diseases such as inflammation and asthma, which can increase the permeability of blood vessels and cause the contraction of smooth muscles and bronchi. Our tea seed extract is delicate for skin and give the gentle rinse feeling, leaving the skin refreshed, soft and non-dry.
The saponins we use are COSMOS, HALAL, VEGAN certified.
Benefits for skin:
- balancing sebum production
a natural ingredient, belongs to a group of poly-hydroxy acids (PHAs), derives from gluconic acid and consists of several hydroxyl groups (pairings of oxygen and hydrogen atoms). Due to a larger molecule structure than AHAs and BHAs, it doesn’t penetrate the skin so intensively. Gentle for all skin types, it is particularly recommended for people with sensitive or mature skin – even irritated or with inflammation – for whom AHAs and BHAs are too irritating. Gluconolactone naturally occurs in fruit, honey and wine. It works as an exfoliator, antioxidant, humectant (an ingredient that attracts water to the skin).
Benefits for skin:
- improving skin tone and texture
- dissolving the dead cells
- brightening complexion
- hydrating, drawing water into the skin
- some antioxidant benefits – neutralizing free radicals, protecting skin from some of the effects of UV radiation
- antimicrobial properties
- generally safe for sensitive skin
Lactobionic acid is a next-generation AHA with a polyhydroxy structure (a so-called polyhydroxy acid). It is the oxidized form of lactose, which is derived from milk. Similarly to gluconolactone, lactobionic acid has larger molecule structure than AHAs and BHAs, therefore it is much more gentle for the skin, without causing the stinging and irritation associated with some AHAs. With lactobionic acid, only the shallow layers of the skin’s surface are receiving exfoliation, so it can be used daily and doesn’t need to be used at a low pH, which reduces irritation.
Research confirms lactobionic acid brings significant improvements in clinically graded parameters, a significant reduction in mild preexisting irritation, and significant increases in skin firmness and thickness. Although it belongs to the group of gentle exfoliators, it is also a humectant moisturizer that attracts and absorbs water to the skin as well as an antioxidant, soaking up skin-damaging free radicals. A research from 2016 confirmed that lactobionic acid absorbs free radicals generated by ultraviolet exposure. Due to the increased cellular turnover rate, it brightens the skin, evens out skin tone, reduces the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles. According to latest studies, lactobionic acid also aids in the lessening of scars and hyperpigmentation.
Benefits for the skin:
- gentle exfoliation
- supporting the texture, smoothing skin’s surface
- reducing the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles
- fighting dark spots, hyperpigmentation
- brightening the skin
- increase in skin thickness via digital caliper measurements
- hydration of the skin
- an antioxidant helping to protect against further sun damage
IMPROVEMENT OF WELL-BEING
BERGAMOT FRUIT OIL
Bergamot Fruit Oil we use at LAST comes from the Citrus Aurantium Bergamia Fruit. It is the furocoumarin free (FCF) essential oil, steam distilled from the fruits of wild harvested bergamot orange trees growing in Italy. The oil is used in aromatherapy against psychological stress, due to it’s calming and soothing influence on the mood and well-being. Simultaneously, it is uplifting, dissipates anxiety and nervous tension. It relieves mood disorders by signaling the brain to release dopamine and serotonine. A research from 2015, run by E.Watanabe on 41 healthy females, confirmed that inhaling bergamot oil has positive influence on mood states, parasympathetic nervous system activity and salivary cortisol levels. In skincare, bergamot oil is used for the purifying properties. The several compounds of bergamot fruit oil (like polyphenols) are antibacterial and anti-inflammatory. Linalool and carvacrol can influence the pain response and have analgesic, anticonvulsant, and anti-inflammatory capabilities, what was also confirmed in research from 2017, published in the International Journal of Molecular Sciences.
Copaiba is a 100% natural balsam drawn from the trunks of the copaiba tree (Copaifera Officinalis), growing in the Amazonian forests in Brazil, as well as Peru, Columbia and Venezuela. In traditional medicine of the natives, copaiba is a symbol of vitality, used for generations as a remedy for digestion, strengthening the immune system. The name, kupai’wa, means “there is something inside”. The curanderos – healers – have long been applying it as an ointment to heal war injuries and collision wounds and to soothe aching joints. In Panama, copaiba oil was ritually given to newborns with a little bit of honey to chase away evil spirits and develop the child’s knowledge of the world. Local populations used to harvest this oil only once a year as part of a ceremony, in a patient and respectful way, only from the oldest trees (100 years old), each of them yielding approx. 40 liters of the oleoresin per year. At LAST, we use 100% pure oleoresin (not the essential oil distilled with steam from the oleoresin), because it is more environmentally friendly and more therapeutically effective due to its diterpene content.
Copaiba Balsam offers many benefits within cosmetic, aromatherapy, personal care and wellness applications. It has a rich, deep, earthy aroma – used in aromatherapy for calming, balancing and grounding.
Copaiba Balsam consists of at least 90% sesquiterpenes, which have strong antibacterial, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic properties, useful in lessening the symptoms of eczema and dermatitis. It is often called the forest’s antibiotic, due to the powerful effectiveness in healing wounds and scars. It also contains large amounts of beta-caryophyllene that interacts with cannabinoid receptors in the body, releasing beta-endorphin, as well as Vitamin E (an antioxidant), germacrene D (antibacterial and antifungal properties), oleic acid (omega 9) and linoleic acid (omega 6) which assists skin regeneration and prevents it from drying. Such composition of Copaiba Balm enables it to reduce wrinkles, moderate psoriasis, take care of bruises, alleviate calluses, soothe acne, sunburn and irritation.
Benefits for skin:
- antibacterial, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic
- decreasing the symptoms of eczema and dermatitis
- deeply regenerating
- reducing wrinkles
- moderating psoriasis
- alleviating calluses
- soothing acne, sunburn and irritation
FRANKINCENSE CO2 EXTRACT
Frankincense, also known as olibanum, is obtained from trees of the genus Boswellia: Boswellia serrata, sacra, carteri or frereana, growing in semi deserts of Asia and Africa. It has been known for centuries – cited in the Bible as one of three “gifts of the magi” presented at the birth of Jesus, used by Cleopatra in her beauty regimen. Together with myrrh, also present in our Skin Repair Serum, frankincense has been extensively used for a number of health purposes in Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine. The most common use was its anti-inflammatory properties – in fact the top constituent of frankincense essential oil – alpha-pinene – is widely recognized for its ability to reduce the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, as well as for some immune-enhancing properties.
Terpenes and boswellic acids appear to be the strongest anti-inflammatory compounds in frankincense (source 1, source 2). It was clinically proven that frankincense affects many important signaling pathways that are closely related to inflammation, immune response, and tissue remodeling, there is also evidence of the biological activities of frankincense essential oil in human dermal fibroblasts (source). By reducing the level of collagen III, frankincense is likely to improve healing skin by reducing the chance of scar formation or wound persistence.
Benefits for skin:
- improves tissue remodeling
- helps with scar formation and wound persistence
LEMONGRASS ESSENTIAL OIL
The lemongrass essential oil used in LAST formulations comes from wild harvested grass of West Indian Cymbopogon Citratus Leaves. After drying on sun, the lemongrass goes through a steam distillation process delivering the essential oil, while the used grass is being fed to the cattle (zero waste). One of the main components of lemongrass essential oil are citral (70-80%) – with antiseptic, antimicrobial, antiviral qualities – and limonene, known for reducing inflammation. The other ingredients include hydrocarbon terpenes, alcohols, ketones, esters and mainly aldehydes. It is used as a medicinal herb in India.
Lemongrass essential oil is a source of essential vitamins such as vitamin A, B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, folate and vitamin C. It also provides essential minerals such as magnesium, phosphorous, manganese, copper, potassium, calcium, zinc and iron. The oil can be used in healing skin conditions – its’ pain-killing activity suggests that lemongrass can be used to soothe irritations. It can also strengthen your skin tissues, sterilize pores and serve as a natural toner. With it’s antioxidant properties, the lemongrass essential oil has the ability to fight free radicals, the root cause of akin ageing. According to the New York Institute of Aromatic Studies, “it acts particularly on the connective tissue, where structural and immune functions meet. Lemongrass acts on the lymphatic capillaries and vessels draining away from the skin so it is useful in edema and lymphatic congestion.”
In aromatherapy, lemongrass essential oil may have an anxiolytic effect, crutial in relieving anxiety, stress and irritability. When rubbed into skin, it can alleviate headaches. In our formula, it is used for relaxation, boosting mood and comfort.
MYRRH CO2 EXTRACT
Myrrh comes from the reddish-brown resin of Commiphora Myrrha, native to Africa, collected from the tree’s resin and extracted with CO2 to keep all the values in the essential oil. The word “myrrh” comes from the Arabic word “murr,” meaning bitter, due to its sharp taste. The resin has been prized since ancient times, not only for the use in spiritual applications and as a natural incense, but also for healing properties it demonstrated when applied on skin. It was mentioned in the Bible several times, used in traditional Chinese medicine and in Ayurvedic medicine.
In aromatherapy, the rich, warm, sweet, earthy scent of myrrh is especially grounding and balancing oil. It helps center the mind and calm the spirit. It is the perfect aromatic to promote feelings of spirituality during mindfulness practices, meditation and yoga, as well as root chakra work.
Myrrh has strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and anti-fungal properties, it kills harmful bacteria and stimulates the immune system to produce more white blood cells. Even used as an incense, especially combined with frankincense, it helps purify the air from airborne microbes. It was clinically proven that myrrh oil has strong efficacy against several infectious bacteria, including some drug-resistant ones (source 1, source 2, source 3) and – even at a low dilution of 0.1% – kill all dormant Lyme disease bacteria, which can persist in some people after antibiotic treatment and continue to cause illness (source).
In skincare, myrrh is used mostly for treating wounds and skin infections. It was tested on human skin cells and confirmed the efficacy in healing (source). In another study myrrh oil inhibited 43–61% of the growth of five fungi that cause skin conditions, including ringworm and athlete’s foot (source). Being a powerful antioxidant, even more efficient than vitamin E (source), myrrh essential oil protects skin’s own squalene against oxidation and combats oxidative damage. It is perfect for relieving dry, inflamed, irritated skin, preventing skin aging, retaining moisture in skin. The secret is terpenes. Myrrh also contains skin-soothing limonene, bacteria-fighting germacrene, anti-fungal curzerene and magnesium.
Benefits for skin:
- anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and anti-fungal
- combats oxidative damage
- stimulates the immune system
- soothing, treats wounds and skin infections
- prevents skin aging
- retains moisture in skin
NEROLI ESSENTIAL OIL
Neroli essential oil, coming from a steam distillation of the white blossom of the bitter orange tree Citrus Aurantium Flower. It has a characteristic elegant sweet and floral scent that blends really well with our frankincense, myrrh, copaiba and lemongrass.
Used in skincare, neroli essential oil reduces inflammation, diminishes the appearance of scars.
It is an uplifting, calming and anti-depressant ingredient. In aromatherapy, used mostly for relaxation, enhancing mood, reducing stress and alleviating sleep problems. According to research published in 2014 in Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, neroli oil aromatherapy had a positive impact on menopausal symptoms, stress, and estrogen in postmenopausal women visible in improved quality of life-related to menopausal symptoms, increased sexual desire, and reduced blood pressure. It is a powerful self-care ingredient, helpful whenever you need a break from the world.
RHODIOLA ROSEA ROOT EXTRACT
Rhodiola rosea root extract, also known as arctic root or golden root extract, belongs to the family of Crassulaceae. It grows in the Arctic latitudes and northern mountainous regions of Europe and Asia. Rhodiola’s roots and rhizomes are the parts used for the production of the extract.
Containing more than 140 active ingredients, with the most potent: rosavins (Rosavin, Rosin and Rosarin), flavonoids and chlorogenic acids, it was used for centuries in European and Asiatic traditional medicine to treat anxiety, fatigue and depression. Modern research confirmed rhodiola rosea increases the body’s resistance to any type of stress by regulating the hormonal response.
Rhodiola rosea is clinically proven to stimulate the production of ß-endorphins in the skin (raising the ß-endorphins level in skin more than 4 times!) . It induces ß-endorphin biosynthesis by stimulating central and peripheral receptors, not only providing the well-being sensation of the skin, but also improving general mood and physical condition, in pain relief, reducing stress, strengthening the immune system and producing euphoria.
Arctic root visibly improves the appearance of the skin. Its antioxidant properties protect against free radicals-induced damage. Other skin care applications are: anti-stress, relaxation, well-being, anti-aging.
VANILLA CO2 EXTRACT
Vanilla planifolia is native to Central America and Mexico, where the only natural pollinators of Vanilla flowers are bees of the genus Melipona and hummingbirds. When vanilla plants were first introduced to regions like Madagascar, they didn’t produce any fruit pods because there were no Vanilla-specific pollinators. Only years later, in 1841, a 12-year old Edmond Albius, working on a Vanilla plantation, discovered a way to hand-pollinate the flowers, what brought back the fruit pods. Today, almost all Vanilla Planifolia grown anywhere in the world is now hand-pollinated. The process makes it a very costly and labor-intensive crop. Usually it takes approximately 4-5 years after planting to see the first vanilla blossoms and it takes 600 hand-pollinated blossoms to produce only 1 kilo of cured Vanilla pods. These are picked by hand while still green and are sold to special processing plants where they are sorted, blanched, steamed, and sun-dried.
We use organic vanilla extract, manufactured with a use of liquid carbon dioxide (CO2 supercritical extraction), delivering a potent natural extract that contains approx. 12% vanillin content. It is alcohol and solvent free, made of carefully selected vanilla beans and carries rich, warm, sweet vanilla aroma.
In skincare, vanilla is used for its anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial properties, soothing and calming irritated skin. It was incorporated in our Skin Repair Serum because of the high content of Vanillin, a polyphenol with powerful anti-oxidant properties. It is also rich in vitamins B (niacin, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and pantothenic acid) and has aromatherapeutic properties. Vanilla calms the mind, it can assist with stress and nervous conditions. Used especially in the evenings, it can help reduce nervous tension, agitation and promote relaxation before sleep. What we appreciated the most, was that vanilla blends wonderfully with wood and citrus essential oils, balancing the earthy and sour aroma of our formula.
Benefits for skin:
- anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial
- soothing and calming irritated skin
VITAMIN B3 – NIACINAMIDE
Vitamin B3 is a water – soluble vitamin also known as niacinamide and nicotinamide. It is one of the most extraordinary skincare ingredients with multi functional, clinically proven activity, non-sensitizing, well tolerated by all skin types, even with rosacea. Niacinamide boosts the hydrating properties of moisturizes, improves skin’s appearance by reducing pigment spots and evening skin tone. It enhances skin’s ability to absorb and neutralize free radicals – a molecules that either lost or gained an extra electron and are unstable and highly reactive. When present in larger amounts, they can damage healthy cells. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) – a molecule present in niacin (and niacinamide) – is able to contribute an extra electron to those unpaired one so that they rest neutral to the skin condition. This sbility to repair damage is followed by the vitamin’s B effectiveness in supporting the skin in production of strengthening ceramides – lipids that help maintain the skin’s protective barrier – what results in renewal and restoration of the skin surface against dehydration and moisture loss. By strengthening skin’s barrier, niacinamide reduces the impact of environmental damage and helps skin recover from the past damage, treat pigmentation issues, diminish wrinkles and fine lines. It also has a positive impact on pores – normalizing the production of sebum, reducing the size, tightening of skin pores.
When it comes to actual health of the skin, according to the study from 2015 published in the New England Journal of Medicine, niacinamide has proven effectiveness in preventing skin cancer. Among the 386 participants of the study, all with at least two non-melanoma skin cancer within last five years and therefore a high chance of developing another one – there were 23% fewer cases of new cancer among the patients who received niacinamide (336 cancers), compared to those who received the placebo (463 cancers).
Benefits for skin:
- increases hydration, reduces transepidermal water loss
- increases skin elasticity and reduce fine lines
- reduces pigment spots
- visibly minimizes enlarged pores and tightens lax pores
- provides skin lightening effect, reduce dullness
- supports the production of ceramides strengthening the surface of skin
- reduces the damage of skin
- allows skin to absorb and neutralize free radicals
- has anti-inflammatory properties
VITAMIN C – OIL SOLUBLE
Oil soluble vitamin C – Ascorbyl Tetraisopalmitate – is a multifunctonal vitamin C derivative with highest stability and fastest skin penetration among all the vitamin C derivates. It is safe and non iritating even to sensitive skin. It exhibits percutaneous absorption and effectively converts into free vitamin C in the skin to perform various physiological functions. Oil soluble vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant reducing free radicals and protecting cells, as well as an anti-inflammatory agent, effective in treating and preventing acne. It can provide collagen synthesis with anti-wrinkle properties and keep the skin firm. It also inhibits melanogenesis – reduces the melanine amount, presenting anti-pigmentation, age-spot reduction efficacy.
Benefits for skin:
- powerful antioxidant
- effectiveness in anti-pigmentation, age-spot reduction
- prevents lipid peroxidation
- accelerates the production and synthesis of collagen
- superior skin penetration
- photoprotective effectiveness (UVB) + reduction of sun damage
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CASSIA ANGUSTIFOLIA SEED POLYSACCHARIDE
Cassia Angustifolia is an ayurvedic plant, also known as Indian Senna, used in eastern medicine for over 1000 years. It is native to India, growing in dry or semi-desert areas, low meadows, along rivers. The yellow flowers of Cassia Angustifolia produce a fruit comprising of 5 to 7 oval seeds, that are later used for the extraction of the polysaccharide we use.
Ayurvedic use of this raw material is about the general equilibrium, the harmony between body and mind that leads to development of well-being. It is used as a blood purifier, laxative – for relieving constipation and to treat skin diseases. It also has powerful, clinically proven influence on dealing with stress in a mindful way. While, according to research, 4 in 5 of us feel stressed every day, we all face the negative consequence of this condition which is physical, psychological and cognitive impairment. The physical aspect may be visible in gaining weight or pain, the psychological – in the feeling of anxiety, depression, problems with sleep, and the cognitive one – in problems with concentration and memory. Stress has also a negative impact on skin condition, affecting mostly the skin hydration (dryness) and radiance (dull skin). It is connected with the cortisol release happening in stressful situations. The cortisol is regulated by both the brain and keratinocytes. Disruption of the cortisol synthesis in keratinocytes, caused by excessive stress, interrupts collagen and hyaluronic acid production by fibroblasts actually decreasing production of collagen and hyaluronic acid within the skin. According to BASF’s consumer study, 73% experience the lack of radiance and 39% experience the dryness of the skin when facing stressful environment.
The goal of Cassia Angustifolia seed polysaccharide is to rebalance the cortisol regulators level, restore the collagen and hyaluronic acid synthesis in fibroblasts and consequently increase the hydration and radiance of the skin.
The in vitro and ex vivo studies by BASF, run on female volunteers aged 35-65, using exactly the same concentration of the raw material as in our LAST’s Skin Repair Serum, showed:
- 61% decrease of cortisol generator
- 215% increase of cortisol repressor
- 99% increase of hyaluronic acid synthesis
- 13% increase of collagen synthesis
- 44% improvement of immediate moisturization (after 30 min)
- 23,5% improvement of moisturization after 24h, outperforming hyaluronate
Skin hydration was verfied with Skicon, skin radiance with Glossymeter.
Benefits for skin:
- pure vegetal alternative to hyaluronic acid – provides moisture longer than hyaluronic acid
- improves skin moisturization and radiance
- gives perceivably smoother and softer skin
- interrupts the stress cycle within the skin
- influences the well-being of the skin
LEUCONOSTOC/RADISH ROOT FERMENT
Leuconostoc/Radish Root Ferment comes from fermenting Raphanus sativus (radish) roots with a microorganism – Leuconostoc – a bacteria from lactic acid. It is a plant extract and a preservative, protecting skincare formulations from harmful substances which could contaminate the cosmetic or alter its effectiveness.
Benefits for skin:
- natural bioferment
- anti-fungal, antimicrobial ingredient, protects the formulation
- improves moisturization properties
Lysolecithin (Hydrolysed lecithin) is a natural emulsifier, improving the moisturization effect and allowing active ingredients to be absorbed by the skin without altering the dermal barrier’s lipid structure. Combined with polysaccharides and silica from our Skin Repair Serum formulation, it provides smooth, sophisticated skin feel and hydration.
Benefits for skin:
- promotes the delivery of active ingredients into the skin
- maintains the skin’s natural lipid structures
- gives smooth, pleasant feeling after the application
Pentylene glycol is a part of the 1,2-glycol family of ingredients, safe for use even with sensitive skin. It is a multi functional ingredient with conditioning properties, moisturizing skin, giving it a long lasting smoothing effect. Able to simultaneously act as a preservative, pentylene glycol is also having antimicrobial effect in products.
Benefits for skin:
- a humectant with moisturizing properties
- antimicrobial ingredient
PROTECTION AND REGENERATION
ARGAN OIL (COLD PRESSED)
Argan oil comes from the kernels, growing on the argan trees native to Morocco. It has traditionally been used both topically and orally to improve the health of skin, hair and nails. Argan oil is characterised by the predominance of oleic and linoleic acid as unsaturated fatty acids. This oil has anti-inflammatory and regenerative properties because of linoleic acid and antioxidative activity due to phytosterols and squalane. Thus it helps to prevent or treat conditions like rosacea, psoriasis or atopic dermatitis. It has both antibacterial and fungicidal properties and supports the treatment of acne by effectively regulating amounts of sebum on the skin.
Owing to the presence of vitamin E and antioxidants, argan oil is often used as a moisturizer and supporter of healing wounds. It leaves the skin smooth and calm. It also works as an antioxidant, helping to protect the skin against free radical damage caused by the sun, supporting prevention of burns and hyperpigmentation. A study with postmenopausal participants found that a combination of oral and cosmetic argan oil led to a significant increase in elasticity of the skin.
INCI: Argania Spinosa Kernel Oil
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HEMP SEED OIL (COLD PRESSED)
Hemp seed oil, Cannabis Sativa Seed Oil is made of hemp seeds, unlike the CBD that comes from hemp leaves, stalks and flowers. The seeds come from the hemp plants, a cannabis plants cultivated for non-drug use. The oil is legally and used in large quantity for cosmetics, nutritional supplementation and skin oils. The one we use in LAST formulations is cold pressed.
is an ingredient rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids: regenerative and anti-inflammatory linoleic acid, alpha and gamma linolenic acids (GLA), omega-6, omega-3 and omega-9 fatty acids. It repairs and strengthens the skin barrier, acts also as a humectant, meaning it keeps the moisture inside. It is suitable in the regenerative and soothing skin care. Especially gamma linolenic acids act as a powerful anti-inflammatory, simultaneously encouraging new cell generation, what improves the condition of skin with acne, psoriasis and other irritations. Hemp seed oil aids in hydrating, soothing and repairing mature and damaged skin. It reduces inflammation, hydrates, regulates oil production.
Hemp oil can be used by all skin types, it doesn’t clog the pores, moreover it balances the production of sebum
JOJOBA SEED OIL (COLD PRESSED)
Jojoba seed oil, sometimes called Jojoba wax is a non-fragrant, all-natural, great emollient extracted from the seeds of a perennial shrub. Due to it’s similarity to the oil (sebum) human skin produces, it is a perfect ingredient for all the skin types – rich in vitamins A, D and E, as well as antioxidants, working as a natural conditioner. It is also filled in monounsaturated fatty acids and has a low saponification value. The one you find in our formulations is a cold pressed jojoba seed oil golden.
Jojoba oil is light (unlike other highly saturated oils) and one of the best skin absorbers – research has proved it can even reach the corneal layer, providing maximum nourishment for skin. It is known for enhancing skin’s restorative properties. The high content of wax esters makes jojoba oil a good repair option for skin problems with altered skin barriers. It calms eczema via its analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, as well as an ability to restore a compromised skin barrier. It is naturally antiviral, antifungal, antibacterial, analgesic (able to relieve pain), hypoallergenic and has anti-inflammatory effect as well.
INCI: Simmondsia Chinensis Seed Oil
PERILLA SEED OIL (COLD PRESSED)
Perilla seed oil, also known as Chinese melisse and wild sesame, is a member of the mint family, derived from the seeds of perilla ocymoides naturally growing in Asia. Each seed contains approx. 35-45% oil consisting of triacylglycerides, sterol esters and sterols (91.2-93.9%), glycolipids (3.9-5.8%) and phospholipids (2-3%). It has high contents of tocopherol but above all, it is one of the richest sources of regenerative omega-3 fatty acid: alpha-linoleinic acid (ca. 60%).
Perilla oil may be used for dry, sensitive, mature and oily skin, mostly due to it’s non-fatty skin feel and a very rapid absorption. Due to the abundance of linoleic acid, it demonstrates excellent antibacterial and anti-inflammatory qualities. It is effective in atopic dermatitis as well as in acne-treatment.
Above all, perilla seed oil works perfectly for aging skin – soothing, repairing and providing powerful antioxidant protection. Being potent antioxidant, rich in flavones, it supports the prevention of free-radical-induced damage to the skin cells, which can result in premature aging. Acting as a natural precursor for ceramides, perilla oil may play a role in maintaining the skin barrier to protect against water loss.
INCI: Perilla Ocymoides Seed Oil
Phytol is derived from moss, the first plants on Earth with unique ability to adapt fast enough to climate change and survive 470 million years until today. The features enabling moss to be resistant to cold and drought were mainly aquaporins for water balance, rehydrins for desiccation tolerance/fast regeneration, ability to repair DNA (resurrection mechanisms), waterbinding metabolites such as stachyose and antifreeze proteins and cryoprotectants.
Phytol, coming from physcomitrella patens, culture extract with isomalt is the first biotechnologically produced moss which is obtained in a reproducible and sustainable way. It introduces new anti-aging concept based on cell nucleus health.
The ingredient has powerful impact on skin. It rejuvenates the nuclear pore complex and improves the molecular traffic into and out of the nucleus in aged cells. It therefore helps the skin to quickly adapt to environmental changes. It significantly improves skin moisture, even in stressful conditions, strengthens skin resilience against urban aggressors, improves skin hydration, provides visible improvement of skin homogeneity, refines skin and creates a flawless complexion. Phytol also supports the activity of all other anti-aging actives which work through stimulation of gene expression.
The raw material is approved by ECOCERT GREENLIFE in accordance with COSMOS Standard. It was rewarded internationally: Gold Award at Innovation Zone Best Ingredient in-cosmetics Global, Gold Award at Innovation Zone Best Ingredient in-cosmetics North America, Gold Award at BSB Innovation Prize, 3rd Prize at Sepawa Innovation Prize
INCI: Phytol, Isomalt, Aqua
ROSEHIP SEED OIL (COLD PRESSED)
Rosehip seed oil, also know as Rosehip oil, is derived from the rosa canina rose bush (fruits and seeds), growing mostly in Chile. It is well renowned and valuable ingredient used from the ancient times, due to its skin-nourishing properties. Rosehip oil is mostly precious for it’s high content of regenerative essential fatty acids: linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid. It is also rich in vitamin A derivative, vitamins B1, B2, B3 and K, carotenoids with antioxidative properties and phenols that have been shown to have antiviral, antibacterial, and antifungal properties. All that give the rosehip oil unique regenerative and healing properties.
Rosehip seed oil is recommended for the care of irritated, sensitive and mature skin. It is a powerful moisturizer and emollient – it softens the skin and improves the barrier function. It is clinically proven to increases collagen production and skin elasticity after 8 weeks of usage. It works perfectly for acne prone skins, which are – according to the research – deficient in rosehip oil’s specific fatty acid and its topical application can reduce the size of blemishes. It calms inflammation, linoleic acid has also been found to brighten, even out skin tone and help treat hyperpigmentation.
INCI: Rosa Canina Fruit Oil
NEPHELIUM LEAF EXTRACT
Nephelium lappaceum is an evergreen tree of about 4 to 20 meters high, growing in south Asian countries such as Vietnam, Thailand and China. Its principal trunk is erected with an open crown of large branches. The bark is slightly rough, greyish or red. The hairy fruit – called rambutan – is mainly red, but they can be also yellow, orange and pink. The tree can live up to 100 years.
Nephelium leaf extract rejuvenates the skin by strengthening the synthesis of crucial dermal fibers: collagen and elastic fibers. It acts on dermal fiber synthesis as well as on the proper assembly of the fibers for less wrinkles and improved elasticity. Nephelium leaf extract is known as a natural alternative to retinol which rejuvenates mature skin through biological pathways similar to this ingredient, with a broader scope of action and without the drawbacks. It improves skin elasticity (+19%) and helps to reduce wrinkles (-15%).
Tetrapeptide-4 it is a new biomimetic tetrapeptide which provides increased skin density and challenges the effect of gravity through self stimulating production of connective tissue components to maintain a youthful appearance and defy gravity.
As the loss of skin resistance increases with biological age, independently of gender, region and other conditions, Tetrapeptide-4 comes in hand by decreasing the degradation of collagen, fibronectin and elastin turnover, preventing the increased wrinkling, loss of skin elasticity and sagging of connective tissue. The biomimetic amino acid sequence of the tetrapeptide shows convincing performance with regard to the increase of collagen and improvement of skin resilience. The nature of the amino acid sequence triggers skin’s own production of new ECM components thus shifting the turnover back to normal and delaying visible signs of skin aging.
Benefits for skin:
- reduction of wrinkles’ depth and volume
- uplifting of facial contours
- supporting collagen, fibronectin and elastin production
ALOE VERA POWDER
Aloe Vera is available in different forms and concentrations. We use aloe vera in powder, concentrated 200:1 (so the powder is 200 times more concentrated than the fresh plant). During the manufacture process, aloe vera is rinsed to remove remnants of aloin and dehydrated. The Aloe Barbadensis Gel is then dried and ground into powder.
Aloe vera is rich in vitamins (B complex, vitamin C), folic acid, carotene (a precursor of vitamin A). It is filled with polysaccharides that are hydroscopic and form a strong meshed structure which is very moisturizing to the skin. The skin moisturizing activity is supported by soothing and calming features, what makes aloe vera the perfect natural emollient. It helps skin to heal after burns and sunburns by stimulating fibroblast and connective tissue formation, and by stimulating the epidermal growth and repair process. It is perfect for dehydrated skin, delivering the oxygen deep to the skin cells, nourishing it with vitamins and minerals. Last but not least, aloe vera exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity as well. It is antibacterial and antiseptic, acting against a number of different bacteria and fungi.
Bisabolol is a colorless, oily liquid – a main component of chamomile essential oil, present also in the bark of the Candeia tree of Brazil. It is isolated by scientists because of its potent effectiveness in skincare.
Above all, bisabolol has powerful anti-inflammatory efficacy. It reduces inflammation and inflammatory reactions, even after exposure to UV light. It calms and soothes even sensitive skin, stimulates healing, particularly with acne, rosacea, redness, rashes, psoriasis, sunburn and other similar conditions. Moreover, bisabolol is a good source of panthenol, a natural humectant helping skin hold onto moisture, preventing it from dehydration. As it penetrates deep into the lower layers of skin, it supports prevention of wrinkles and fine lines. In cosmetic formulations, it acts an important role as a skin penetration enhancer, ushering the other active ingredients more deeply into the skin. It has antimicrobial properties, it is effective against epidermis, corynebacteria and staph, as well as Candida albicans. It can also help inhibit melanin synthesis, evening the skin tone and fading hyperpigmentation.
Benefits for skin:
- anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial
- calming, soothing especially the skin with acne, rosacea, redness, rashes, psoriasis or sunburn
- moisturising and hydrating
- preventing wrinkles formation
- diminishing hyperpigmentation, evening the skin tone
Provitamin B5, also known as panthenol, is a versatile ingredient delivering multi benefits to the skin. It has powerful hydrating and moisturizing properties, so it not only hydrates the skin but also, as a humectant, holds and binds the moisture as well as other moisturizing ingredients.
Panthenol is also anti-irritant – it stimulates the regeneration of damaged skin and can regenerate sun burnt skin. It positively influences skin’s hydration, elasticity and softness. It is a skin protectant, reducing itchiness and irritation caused by external stimuli. It improves the skin texture, helps to build up a barrier against irritation and prevents water loss (dehydration and dryness) from evaporation. Apart from direct hydration of the skin, panthenol is also crucial to gain resilience by acquiring the abilities to produce moisture in the long run.
It has anti-inflammatory activity, helps in wound healing with proven soothing activity against rashes, eczema, red skin, little cuts and sores (bug bites, shaving irritation etc). Especially combined with vitamin C, like in our Skin Repair Serum, it supports the production of collagen boosting skin’s healing process.
Benefits for skin:
- moisturising and hydrating, preventing water loss
- stimulating the regeneration of damaged skin
- reducing itchiness and irritation
- increasing skin’s elasticity and improving skin texture
- soothing skin conditions like rashes, eczema, red skin, cuts and sores